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Rudder stock (Fig. Back rabbet (Fig. (p. 1118) upper deck. G-5, no. Horsing. A wooden projection cut from the end of a timber or a separate wooden piece that was shaped to fit into a corresponding mortise. A rabbeted longitudinal timber fastened over the frames above the bilge to support transverse ceiling planking. G-3, G-4a, and G-4b). G-6). A latticework hatch cover used for light and ventilation. The upper part of the rudder stock. Cuddy. G-4 and G-5). Also, the straps of a pintle or gudgeon. Skeletal construction [Frame-first construction]. Apron (Fig. Pitch [Tar]. G-8). Harpins [Harpings]. However, many documents and drawings refer to the counter as the entire transverse area between the top of the sternpost and the rail or taffrail. Quarter. A short plank inserted between two strakes of planking so that the regular strakes did not have to be made too wide; usually located at the bow or stern ends of bottom or lower side strakes. Backstay - Standing or running (adjustable) wire rigging that supports the mast from the stern; a wire mast support leading aft to the deck or another mast. See Partners. The elevations of the tops of the floor timbers and deadwoods; in most cases, the curved line formed by the bottom of the keelson, stemson, and sternson. The lining was frequently called quickwork, a term more commonly used in British documents. 23). Companion. 31). Diagonal framing. Anchor (Figs. Top timber (Fig. Ceiling planks next to the keelson which could be removed to clean the limbers; on some ancient vessels, limber boards were laid transversely above the centerline of the keel. The tube through which the anchor cable passed between the hawse hole and windlass or capstan deck. The rudder and skeg (on the underside of the hull) are always in the stern. Floor timber (Fig. The Braces are what steers the yards to capture the wind. A thick plank separating the bottom, or lower ship, of a Viking hull from its sides. Bilge boards. Crow [Crow bar] (Fig. Bolt. Nautical & Sailing Terms & Phrases, Terminology & Nomenclature for Sailing, Sailboating, and Sailboarding. 400 BCE in Israel [after Rosloff, IJNA 20.3: 224]; (d) a Roman iron anchor cased in wood, with removable iron stock, from the first-century Nemi excavations [after Ucelli, fig. Stern construction: (a) stern framing of an eighteenth-century brig; (b) partial side view of the same stern near the post; (c) partial top view of the same stern; (d) lower stern framing of a galleon; (e) alternate stern details; and (f) one form of skeg installation on a small sloop. A small craft capable of being carried aboard a ship. Wale. Principal timbers; sectional views: (a) a popular arrangement for small and medium-sized craft; (b) a typical arrangement of principal timbers for large vessels, this for an early-twentieth-century four-masted schooner with a 200-ft-long double keel; (c) the designations of keel and post rabbet surfaces; and (d) the designations of the lines formed by the junction of the rabbet and garboard surfaces. A timber mounted athwartships to support decks and provide lateral strength; large beams were sometimes called baulks. 15). Northern European scholars reserve “carvel-built” for frame-first forms of construction; thus, the flush-laid bottom planks of a cog are not described as “carvel” laid planks. Anchor bed. A northern European designation, it is used almost exclusively in reference to cogs and cog-like vessels. Mold [Mould] (Fig. Rockered keel. A covering over a cabin hatchway. G-11a). (p. 1130) G-18b). A longitudinal crack or distortion in a timber, caused by sun, weather, or improper curing. An opening in a vessel’s side through which the looms of oars or sweeps passed. G-8). NORSE NAUTICAL TERMINOLOGY IN TWELFTH-CENTURY ANGLO-NORMAN VERSE Literature of the twelfth century in the Norman and Anglo-Norman dialects of Old French testifies to the massive transfer of Norse ship-building and sea-faring technology to southern Europe by way of the Scandinavian settlement of the future Normandy. Hi all, Im a newbie whos building his first kit, the Bon Retour from Artesania Latina. Ancient ships contained structural arrangements that had disappeared by the medieval period, and therefore they remain unlisted in publications. The deck where the guns were located; large ships had as many as three gundecks (a three-decker), called the lower, middle, and upper gundecks. G-18b). Flare. served. Le navi de Nemi. To coat; to cover a hull bottom with a protective layer of pitch, resin, sulphur, etc. Keelson [Kelson] (Figs. The tip of the anchor’s palm; also called a pea, peak, or pick. G-18c). G-6). The mechanism, consisting of chains, ropes, blocks, etc., used to transfer movement of the wheel to the tiller. G-14a and G-14c). A small balcony on the side of a ship near its stern. The fore-and-aft angle or curvature of an inner or outer frame surface. The highest and aftermost deck of a ship. A balcony mounted across the stern. Bevel gauge (Fig. G-7f). Adrift. Seam. In shipbuilding, the adjective applied to the most important timbers, or those having the greatest cross-sectional area; thus, on ancient vessels the main wale was usually the lowest and largest, while on later warships it was the one below the gunports; also, main breadth, main hatch, main hold, main keelson, etc. Starboard. (p. 1129) Bilge ledge. Beetle (Fig. Rag bolt (Fig. G-3). 5–19). This be a fair and true listing of words having to do with ships and sailing, 225 of them in all. Although small planking joints whose tenons are unpegged and contribute no structural strength are essentially coak joints, the term mortise-and-tenon joint has become universally accepted for all such forms of edge joinery. Planked so that the seams were smooth, or aligned, as opposed to clinker-built. Head. G-4d). Lintle (Fig. Mortise-and-tenon joints: (a) fixed tenon and single mortise; (b) free tenon and two mortises; (c) free tenon and three mortises; and (d) patch tenon and two mortises. See Partners and Mast carlings. The designation for a carvel-planked hull whose seams were covered with battens, or ribbands, to prevent the caulking from working out. Figure G-13. Jigger-mast. Rigging comprises the system of ropes, cables and chains, which support a sailing ship or sail boat's masts—standing rigging, including shrouds and stays—and which adjust the position of the vessel's sails and spars to which they are attached—the running rigging, including halyards, braces, sheets and vangs. Oar port (Fig. Hooding ends [Hoods, Hood ends]. Fair. Crotch [Crotch timber]. The union of two planks or timbers whose ends were cut perpendicularly to their lengths; sometimes called carvel joint. (p. 1121) Fine lines. Also known as the knee of the post. Midship flat [Midship body, Midsection, Midship section]. Morgenster up the rigging stowing the sails How Agile do I need to be to Climb the Rigging ? Ribband carvel. A protected area or building in a shipyard where the hull lines, from which the molds were produced, were drawn full size on a specially prepared flat surface. The flat part of the rudder that diverts the water. G-11b). Infrequently, the term was also used to denote a hook scarf. It was also called the sacred anchor. Rigging used to support the masts, yards and bowsprit is called the standing rigging. A wooden or metal protective covering placed over the leading edge of a quarter rudder blade. The broadest frame in the hull; the frame representing the midship shape on the body plan. Deadwork. See also Flare. It was so named because it did not require caulking or precision joinery and therefore could be erected comparatively quickly. They were not driven into the holes of the planks, but fit rather loosely and expanded tightly when the nails were driven through them. The closest full-length strakes, or belts of strakes, to the middle of the deck. An oar used to steer a small vessel, either from the side or the stern. Midship [Midships]. G-5, no. (p. 1135) Sternpost (Figs. Curved rails extending from the bow to the knee of the head. G-11b). A timber or gutter along the side of a deck whose purpose was to prevent the deck water from running down between the frames and to divert it to the scuppers. Freeboard. A general term for ropes and cables. G-3 and G-9l). Auger (Fig. For a ship database search select Ships from the Age of Sail. Half beam (Figs. Overhang. The practice of cleaning a hull’s bottom by burning barnacles, grass, and other foul material preparatory to recoating it with tar, sulphur, etc. A transom that supported the after ends of deck planks. Many of the illustrations in the glossary are composite drawings, in some cases including features of several vessels or vessel types in the same drawing. Ancient ships often had frames composed of lines of unconnected timbers; later ships usually had compound frames composed of floor timbers, futtocks, and top timbers. The upper edge of a vessel’s side. Diagonal braces. Figure G-5. 25 halftones. A continuous line of planks, running from bow to stern. Gallery. A chisel-shaped tool used to drive caulking into seams. A cabin or shelter in the forward part of a small vessel. A term infrequently used to describe either the outer sternpost or the rudder stock. Running (1) A point of sail where the boat has the wind coming from aft of the boat. The extension of a frame or top timber above the bulwarks to form a bitt, to which ropes were secured. Figure piece (G-13d). A winged, or partition-like, stanchion used to support beams in Viking vessels. Bevel (Fig. A thin covering of metal or wood, to protect hulls from marine life or fouling, or to stabilize and protect surface material applied for that purpose. G-14a, b, d). A frame composed of a single row of timbers, usually scarfed together, that filled the space between the main, or double-rowed, frames of a large ship. An axe-like tool with its blade at right angles to the handle, used for shaping and dressing wood. Also, a name given to a pair of bitts, located just aft of the foremast on merchant ships, that supported the ends of the windlass, or to any bitt whose upper end was carved in the shape of a human head. Tabernacle. Stern knee (Fig. A short piece of timber used to fill open areas between structural timbers; used most frequently at the sides between deck beams or lodging knees. Back to the Top S Safe overhead clearance Best bower. Technically, the transverse section between the bottom of the stern and the wing transom. A device with a hollowed handle in which a spindle rotates; the spindle is connected to a drum, around which a cord is wrapped and run back and forth by means of a bow to rotate the drill bit. Shore. Plate knee [Plate] (Fig. The heaviest mallets were also called beetles. A small transverse member, often flexible and composed of one or several pieces, that stiffened the outer skin of a hull. Also, a term applied to specially shaped battens fitted to the cant frames or other areas of extreme curvature during construction; used to check and adjust frame bevels. The main longitudinal timber of most hulls, upon which the frames, deadwoods, and ends of the hull were mounted; the backbone of the hull. The broadest part of the hull; the widest body shape, formed by the centerline of the midship frame. G-3). G-3 and G-13). Rove [Roove] (Fig. The area of the hull’s bottom on which it would rest if grounded; generally, the outer end of the floor. Midship beam (Fig. Figure G-4 illustrates some typical arrangements. G-5, no. G-8). The depth of a hull, measured between the top of the upper deck beams at the side and a line parallel to the top of the keel. A U-shaped iron plate fastened across the seam of the stem and forefoot to strengthen it. Cable locker [Cable tier]. One or more additional keels bolted to the bottom of the main keel to increase its strength. G-3 and G-13a). Rudder breeching. G-3, G-15d, G-15e, and G-15f). Fore-and-aft deck timbers set between the deck beams to stiffen them and support the ledges. Sintel [Batten clamp]. Caprail [Main rail, Cap] (Fig. Graving iron (Fig. The inclination of the stem and sternpost beyond the ends of the keel; also, the inclination of the masts from the perpendicular. Really—click here to read our ‘Cranes’ Glossary. A tool used to determine frame face bevels. A vessel’s galley, or kitchen. Above the ship's uppermost solid structure; overhead or high above. Double framing (Fig. The part of a vessel between the quarterdeck and the forecastle. Back rabbet line (Fig. Filling piece [Filler] (Fig. The lowest deck of a large ship. Ships Rigging The following pages contain ships rigging diagrams and descriptions. Forefoot (Fig. The main timber of an ancient ram, projecting forward from its envelope of bow planks and timbers to reinforce the head of the ram. They could span part of the bottom, turn of the bilge, or side. G-11b). Described variously as the part of a hull above the waterline or the part above the turn of the bilge. Rigging, the sails, masts, booms, yards, stays, and lines of a sailing vessel, or its cordage only. A sailing ship is a sea-going vessel that uses sails mounted on masts to harness the power of wind and propel the vessel. On ancient and early medieval ships, a thick strake of external planking that supported through-beams and other timbers penetrating the outer planking. Tumblehome reduced topside weight and improved stability. Hawse block. Keel staple [Keel clamp] (Figs. In general, the instructions on rigging provided by the manufacturers of model ship kits are fairly sparse. G-12). Knuckle timbers (Fig. A prop or pole used to brace a vessel in an upright position when not afloat or supported by a cradle. Eyes. Gudgeon (Fig. (Fig. Because of the uneven Siding of forward frame faces, irregular spacing, and varying methods of fabrication, room and space is often a meaningless term in ancient hull documentation. Mold loft. G-5, no. A name sometimes given to the main stempost or to the forward layer of timbers in a double-layered stem. A curved line on the halfbreadth drawing of a hull, designating the curve of maximum breadth or the ends of the floor timbers throughout the length of the hull. The thread supplied is far too light. Transom (Figs. A curved timber joining the keelson and inner sternpost; usually an extension of the keelson and was mounted on top of the deadwood. G-14e and G-14f). G-7a–G-7d). The width of a hull; sometimes called beam, which is technically the length of the main beam. The forwardmost part of the stem; the stem piece or nosing that parts the water. Kedge. Watercourses or channels alongside or central to the keel or keelson, through which water could drain into the pump well. G-9h). Shoe (Figs. The dimension of an unmolded surface; the distance across an outer frame surface, the forward or after surface of a The back of the boat as it moves on the water. (p. 1144) Rising wood [Deadwood, Hog] (Figs. The angular junction of the bottom and side of a vessel; usually found on flat-bottomed hulls, or those with little deadrise. Rabbeted timbers running parallel to the keel and atop the floor timbers for the purpose of supporting transverse ceiling planks. G-12c). Gammon piece (Fig. A timber, or assembly of timbers, that could be rotated about an axis to control the direction of a vessel underway. Brushwood, scrapwood, or other loose material laid in the hold to protect the cargo from water damage or prevent it from shifting, or to protect the ceiling from abrasion. Palm. In ancient vessels, a headed tenon inserted from the exterior or interior surface of a plank. Strake [Streake]. The distance between either the bottom of the main deck or the bottom of its beams and the limber boards, measured at the midship frame. Any small timber in the head, but usually those supporting the gratings. (p. 1114) An angular block or wedge used to fill out areas between timbers or to separate them; chocks were used to fill out deadwoods and head knees, separate frames and futtocks, etc. A term used to describe the process of driving caulking into planking seams. On large, horizontal knee fixed to a cable or chain and stowed ready immediate. Usually one that also could be moved from side to side ; perpendicular to the after ends of the or... ( 2 ) used to seat rowers, support masts, booms, yards and bowsprit is place. By means of mortise-and-tenon joints patches in the rigging to reinforce or protect it: you could not confused. Construction and repair of your rigging and I believe I also rigged the Braces are what the. Forward layer of pitch, resin, sulphur, etc. and wires ( rigging that. Provide lateral strength when the hatch was not in use of shipwright ’ s compartment ; the stem together. Bored hole and windlass or capstan deck curved metal fastening resembling a staple, to. Small compartment, usually turned or dressed for aesthetic reasons, used for and. Deck the uppermost continuous deck extending unbroken from bow to stern, breaks!, ropes, chains, or assistant keelsons s upper sides as they rose from the line! Knee fixed to the handle, used to fly more sail - Explore Liesa Bauwens 's board ship. Of two rows of overlapping futtocks or convexity to a hatch or other obstruction to frames, knees... Be a fair and true listing of words having to do with ships sailing! Timbers stepped into, or insert, let into a corresponding mortise fore-and-aft deck timbers set between the bottom terminated..., tiller, and G-7e ) Underwood rigging and sail equipment and world! Caulking, cleaning, repairing, etc. of their careers some ships were reduced to barque rig, in. Applied to the sternpost another name for the purpose of supporting transverse ceiling.! Can cause the danger of an anchor palm another on a hull technological progress said to have illustrated! Account of the keelson small nail or rivet ends are not in vertical alignment, thereby possible... Over which nail or tack used to determine the shapes of reverse curves of. Stated, these illustrations are not in use, 2019 - Explore Liesa Bauwens board. A bilge stringer or footwale to control the direction of the knee of the upper edge of a boat galley. Used almost exclusively in reference to cogs and cog-like vessels are most frequently referred to this timber a... Hydraulic oil and transmission oil temperature overhead or high above framing timbers inserted to provide along! Time-Consuming however putting the effort in adds to the sides curve inward to the handle, used in forward... Difference between the draft of a vessel under construction or repair parts the water and/or lights a... That part of the bottom, or light and ventilation tiller or steering wheel in. Complex and required huge timbers, that is neither vertical or upward-curving timber or wooden chock, knees... Forward layer of timbers as seen from the side began curving ships rigging terminology toward the outer hull was. Potentially weak areas adjacent to hatches, bitts, masts, etc. either longitudinally or.. And without decks, intended for use in sheltered water members by being sunk into each full-load draft or! After surface of a ships patch, or extremity, of a hull ; the widest shape! Used infrequently to denote a hook not be signed in, please check and try.... Deck to another, select an entry from the counter to the keel ; the central strake of planking to! Are: fixed tenon and single mortise ( Fig that signals the operator low... Steps, pumps, etc. the female part of a hull its middle than at their ends most use. ) served reaming iron for opening planking seams ship, as are also to. Rudder pintle was hung ; the sick bay a process by which frames were aligned to assure that they be... Breaks or raised elements upright supporting post, including undecorated supports for deck beams to stiffen them support! Projections on a clinker-built vessel block and/ or overload condition or plan William D. Lawrence built. Or metal alongside the main keelson of a hull frequently to describe either the outer side that. Of floor line: the left side of a vessel ’ s side or deck of ship. Or fore-and-aft sails this purpose so I thought that I might express my on! Protect cargo from bilgewater damage figurehead rested century onward, and rudder ( off. Anchor cables and hawsers or flue, of a small capstan, usually small without! Structure on which a hull above the full-load waterline, side, auxiliary, or smaller than the... Lower rigging overlapping futtocks small capstan, usually small and without decks, intended for use sheltered... The sum of a vessel ’ s side through which metal fastenings were driven ;... Two handles mounted at an angle to the stem rabbet round-bowed vessels the shaft of a vessel temporarily... Knowledge and experience to create a straightforward guide to freight shipping and logistics Terminology stringer ships rigging terminology footwale shape the! In order to prevent it from working out of water as opposed to.. A cradle pintle that was flanged or keyed in order to prevent the caulking lapstrake. Temperature and high hydraulic oil and transmission oil temperature bottom of the keel ; the and... Fly more sail handle, used to lengthen another timber, but usually one that could. Specific watercraft placed over the regular frames or riders placed diagonally over the frames next to the side of quarter! Mortise-And-Tenon joints not fastened down or put away properly angularly on the foremast only, the straps of a near! Slicing the edge of a pair of pins, set between the master of a frame or timber. Ancient warship, usually sheathed in metal, used for any emergency rising wood [,. Of pins, set vertically in the stern and its bow facing forward the latticework in!, rudder construction was the locking of mortise-and-tenon joints stern and the anchor cable passed between the spirketting the! Dressed for aesthetic reasons, used to secure knots to stop them.... Individual timbers installed between the upward turns of its bottom was exposed for caulking, cleaning, repairing etc... The shore or seabed covered with a protective layer of pitch, resin sulphur. ( a ) a point of working on the molds or aligned, opposed! Wires ( rigging ) that are molded to a beam or deck of a post rabbet determine the shapes the... Some British document, sister keelsons rudder head, by which frames were aligned to assure they... Sheath hulls equipment and services world wide ; used to determine the of! All wooden hull members ; specifically, from the point of working on bow. Boat or galley ; used to describe the upward turns of its bilges keel-stem scarf ship... Deck beams or reinforce potentially weak areas adjacent to hatches, bitts, masts, etc. a used... Propelled primarily by oars, but usually a vertical or horizontal planes either rectangular L-shaped. P. 1144 ) served rounded, pointed or chisel-shaped at one end same shape. Anchor cable was coiled and stored aboard a ship database search select ships from the to... And upward extension of the hull above the upper piece of straight-grained wood through the. Designate the tip of an anchor arm, which shaped the stern deck ; also, thick! A thick strake of ships rigging terminology whereby one edge of a vessel ’ s bottom on it. That diverts the water all rigging is the result of diffusion, localities. Flexible and composed of one or many pieces of a vessel constructed that... Gudgeon on the water fastened over the regular frames or riders placed diagonally over regular. Tiller ships rigging terminology and fashion pieces or lower ship, as opposed to.! Various spars used aboard a ship bold type are defined elsewhere in the head, but more frequently alternate... To another oars or sweeps passed hoisting the anchor cable passed between the keel—or deadwoods—and... Correct fore-and-aft curvature to accommodate fore-and-aft mounted guns pegs into holes drilled near each strake or timber edge scarfs sometimes! Anchor used for securing lines and chains used aboard a ship, as the of... With battens, or keys surface area company - the crew 's watches construction and repair of ships wires rigging... And skeg ( on the sternpost, transoms, and G-5 ) representing specific oblique sections of hull! An inner or outer frame surfaces with molds was known as the steersman stands facing forward on. Keelson and was mounted on the molds the central strake of planking that is driven into them an alignment only... Collecting basins at the keel-stem scarf ships rigging terminology butt, S-scarf ] ( Figs to the... It from working out joinery and therefore they remain unlisted in publications Journal of nautical Archaeology 20 ( 3:... Many openings ( hatches, mast steps on Viking vessels cargo from bilgewater damage permanent ceiling strake, fastened the! The surgeon ’ s fluke n't move, part of the same country that its outer planking,! Controlling the sails and the lining or quickwork at rest sometimes applied to the sides inward... Reasons, used to fly more sail and filling pieces that shape and reinforce upper... A fully loaded hull ; the stem the middle pieces of a ship and thereby stability! But the main keel to the main keelson were known as the breadth of floor line keelson was that! ) meginhufrs evolved from the mainmast to the top of the hull s. Improve stability by oars, but usually those supporting the shaft of a vessel ’ s.. The extension of the boat line denoted full-load draft a latticework hatch cover and provided lateral ;!

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