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The advent of the principate of Augustus (27 B.C.E. And we’re going to see that just as in Augustus’ forum–another reference back to Augustus–that the columns in this main area are Corinthian below, but in the second tier there are figures — not figures of caryatids, but different kinds of figures, and I’m going to show you those soon. So what he needed to do–it’s great to have an architect engineer in your back pocket, so he set Apollodorus of Damascus to work. So he does continue this Flavian interest in very elaborate architectural decoration. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010). You can see in this restored view, this series of tabernae down below; the attic up above. In the middle ages the fora were spaces re-used for building materials, housing, industry, and burials. His summary reminds us that in the city of Rome the Forum Romanum was the key political, ritual, and civic center. Markets of Trajan tabernae / Wikimedia Commons. I mentioned to you, when we talked about the Forum Transitorium, that Domitian also had his eye on this property over here. Forum of Trajan aerial / Wikimedia Commons, Palazzo Venezia and Mussolini balcony close-up / Wikimedia Commons. They can lift their vault on top of individual piers, as they have done so spectacularly here; lift them up. J. E. Packer, “Trajan’s Forum Again: The Column and the Temple in the Master Plan Attributed to Apollodorus (? So this gives you a very good idea of the entrance gate into this structure. Forum of Trajan model / Wikimedia Commons, Column of Trajan spiral staircase and burial chamber / Wikimedia Commons. So a veritable forest of columns, and then other exedrae, matching exedrae, or, in this case, apses on either end. And you see again the Baths of Titus here, located right again on top of this area that originally belonged to Nero’s Domus Aurea. Our logo, banner, and trademark are registered and fully copyright protected (not subject to Creative Commons). Forum of Trajan reconstruction illustration / UCLA, Creative Commons. The visual program in the Forum of Augustus is complex. Traditional reconstructions favor a free-standing temple at the western end of the forum, while more recent reconstructions instead favor a shrine positioned against the western exedra of the Forum of Augustus. Vespasian adds his Forum Pacis over here. P. Carafa, Il comizio di Roma dalle origini all’età di Augusto (Rome: “L’Erma” di Bretschneider, 1998). We see all of those there, and these were used, as far as we can determine, as meeting halls, lecture halls, Greek and Latin libraries. But you can see the extraordinary difference in scale. I want you to look at the exedrae that you see on either side of the main space of the forum, and on either side of the basilica over here. You’ll recall that Nerva was old, and in fact also relatively sickly, when he became emperor of Rome. The model gives you a better sense of what it looked like in antiquity. ZOOM BIG: Forum of Trajan Location: views Patron: various marble etc Date: dedicated 112 AD Subject: views Image: 12766 He undertook many military campaigns, and very successfully, and he was the emperor that extended Rome to its furthest reaches, to its greatest borders, to its most extensive borders, during his reign. The Roman soldiers did not only do battle, but they also Romanized the areas that they went. Augustus restored existing buildings, completed incomplete projects, and added commemorative projects to celebrate his own accomplishments and those of his family members. View of the Forum from the slope of the Capitoline to the Palatine Hill, By Dr. Jeffrey A. Becker / 12.09.2015 While the forum was the Romans imposing a rectangular plan on nature–remember, they have to cut back the hill, to make way for it–the markets are something quite different. Roman monuments were cannibalized for building materials and open, unused spaces were re-purposed—sometimes as ad hoc dwellings and other times for the deposition of rubbish and fill. They are attacking the camp. The sixth century B.C.E. Column of Trajan, Carrara marble, completed 113 C.E., Rome; dedicated to Emperor Trajan (Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus in honor of his victories over Dacia (now Romania) 101-02 and 105-06 C.E. See "Terms of Service" link for more information. So a very different kind of image. The Romans get there, what do they do? The column stands 38 meters tall and its frieze wraps around the column shaft 23 times, with a total length of roughly 190 meters. (Livy 1.6). We are reminded of this efficacy by an ancient example that is perhaps no different from the reaction of a modern visitor to the city of Rome. In his summary, Plautus gives the reader the sense that one could find just about every sort of person in the forum—from criminals and hustlers to politicians and prostitutes. Addressing the problems of seasonal rains and flooding proved more challenging—the valley required a landfill project as well as the construction of a drainage canal to manage standing water. Form: Use of equestrian sculpture showing Trajan on horse. F. Coarelli, Rome and Environs: an Archaeological Guide, trans. Just as Trajan’s Column depicts that emperor’s conquest of Dacia, so does the tapestry depict the Norman conquest of England. saw rebuilding of structures and monuments that had been damaged by fire, including the rebuilding of the Curia Julia by the emperor Diocletian in the late third century C.E. Pompey the Great, a political rival of Caesar, had dedicated a monumental theater and portico complex in the Campus Martius in 55 B.C.E. Yale University, Marble bust portrait of Nerva, c.96-98 A.D. / National Museum of Rome. It’s not that difficult to climb the Column the Trajan because there’s a spiral staircase in the center of it, that goes up to the top. Now that was no small feat in this particular part of the city, because most of this area was occupied by a hill; the so-called Quirinal Hill, in Rome, occupied most of this space. While the Fabian monument is no longer extant, its construction established a tradition (and a traditional form) for official commemorative and honorific monuments in the context of Roman public art. temple of Antoninus Pius and his wife Faustina was constructed in 141 C.E. Again, he obviously did not choose buildings of Nero, many of which had already been destroyed, in any case, but rather looked back further, in fact, dug deep into the Republic, a time, a simpler time in many respects, and a time prior to the shenanigans of the monarchically minded emperors like Nero and Domitian, and he restored buildings from the Republic and from the Augustan period. View of the Forum of Trajan, c. 112 C.E.. Later medieval walls can be seen amidst the grass on the left; the upright columns of the Basilica Ulpia can be seen on the right in front of the larger Column of Trajan. You’ll remember that even though it was restored by Domitian and Trajan, it has fallen on hard times. It looks like they’re quite solid, and that they project into the spectator’s space. I mentioned the museum in Rome that is located in EUR, the Museo della Civiltà Romana, the Museum of Roman Civilization, that has casts and models. Originally published by Smarthistory under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license. The Roman forum was located between two of the seven columns of Rome, the Capitoline and the Palatine Hill. Rather than featuring a central temple seated atop a prominent podium, the Templum Pacis complex consists of a square portico (dimensions 110 x 135 m) with the temple itself set within the eastern side of the portico, flanked by ancillary rooms. Across the way was the Temple of Vesta, focused on the maternal elements of the archaic state as well as safeguarding the cult of Vesta and the sacred, eternal hearth flame of the Roman people. This is a sign that things are beginning to change in the Roman Empire, as the Romans–as Trajan extends those borders even further. You’ll recall that after Nero’s damnatio memoriae, and the coming to power of the Flavian dynasty, that Vespasian and Titus, and even Domitian, razed to the ground Nero’s buildings–Vespasian did that–and then he and Titus and Domitian built new buildings, on top of those, and chose to make those buildings the kind of public buildings that the citizenry as a whole would enjoy; from the Colosseum and amphitheater to the Baths of Titus. A view of the Via Sacra Via, with the Artium Vestae in the foreground. So that you could come out and look at the Column of Trajan, and read some of the scenes that encircled it. C. Hülsen and J. The implication: greater than Augustus. It brings in even more multifaceted civilizations around the world, and talent begins to pour into Rome from all of those places. Some content is licensed under a Creative Commons license, and other content is completely copyright-protected. It’s very interesting to see them depicting, the Romans depicting, the Dacians in such a heroic way on this column. One of the key tenets of Vespasian’s new administration was the restoration of the city, including the construction of new buildings and monuments. And then up here, you can see another–just right up above my finger–you can see another curved wall, and there’s another one somewhere down here, that are part of those curved rooms, those hemicycle-shaped rooms, that are these lecture halls and meeting halls and so on. And we see the Roman soldiers building cities in many of these scenes. Trajan received many titles. And any of you headed to San Francisco, if you go to the Marketplace there, you will see that that owes so much to Roman antiquity, with all the tabernae-like structures on either side; the vaulting. Forum Transitorium, also allows for an equestrian statue of Trajan aerial / Wikimedia.! Arch of Septimius Severus in 1803 Packer, “ Templum Divi Traiani ”... 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